Scientific Articles

The effect of Strength and stretching Development by using the Pilates method on some Gymnastics skills performance level

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Pilates method is complete program for muscles training through different movements aim to increase core muscles especial abdominals, lower back and hip joint muscles which supporting and stabilization the body posture.

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of Strength and stretching Development by using the Pilates method on performance level for balance stand front role and balance shift in Gymnastics. The subjects were 15 students from faculty of physical education, Monofia University, whom were randomly assigned to on group .The statistical analysis is developing ratio of strength by 94.36 % for back extension, flexibility by 184.1% for sit and reach and performance level for balance stand front role and balance shift in Gymnastics 77.3% & 62.9 %   . The results found that the Pilates method made an increase in strength rang of motion and performance level for balance stand front role and balance shift in Gymnastics from pretest to post- test.

The research found that the pilates method were effective to increase Strength and stretching and Gymnastics skills performance level.

 

Relationship between upper limb muscle balance and vertical jump for volleyball players

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Research Introduction and the problem:

The balanced development at both of muscles is the main bath for preventing injuries. Generally in the team games and specially volley ball , the prime mover muscles are   Front Deltoid, Pectoralise major , Triceps and Abdominal muscles  and after few month of specific training the muscles becomes more strengthen than the antagonistic muscles .Because of this Imbalance between these muscles groups, the player is exposed to greater deal of danger of injuries . So the beast way to prevent these injuries is throughout developing a great deal of strength in all prime mover muscles at both saides of body joints. 

The researcher found big difference between the strength of agonistic and the antagonistic muscles which results in injuries for many players and the relationship between upper limb muscle balance and vertical jump for volleyball players . So this difference led the researcher to conduct a program for improving the muscles imbalance in volley ball.

Study Aims:

Designing a training program upper limb strength, knowing the effect of the strength program on muscle imbalance.

Hypothesis:

Muscle balance program improving muscular imbalance on strengthen upper limb muscles.

Research method:

The research has used the experimental method by designing one group with pre and post measuring.

Research sample:

Research sample was selected with the purposive method from volley ball players in Aviation club.

Conclusions:

Muscular balance between anterior and posterior muscles become between 92.2  to 95.2.  And Muscular balance on Lateral body become between 50.83 to 50.83

 

Recommendations:

-              Equal development for upper limb agonistic and antagonistic muscles.

-              Improving strength development ratio on upper limb muscles

-              Using the suggested training program of strength to improve the muscular imbalance of upper limb muscles

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THE EFFECT OF STRATCHING AND STRENGTHING PROGRAM ON IMPROVING MUSCULAR IMBALANCE ON KNEE JOINT MUSCULES

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 THE EFFECT OF STRATCHING AND  STRENGTHING PROGRAM ON IMPROVING MUSCULAR IMBALANCE ON KNEE JOINT MUSCULES

ATEF RASHAD KHALIL

Assistant Lecturer in Faculty of Physical Education

Helwan University

 A DISSERTATION

Presented to the Graduate Faculty of Physical Education

The University of Helwan in

Partial Fulfillment of Requirement of

the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

 Supervision Committee

Dr. Abd El-Aziz Ahmed Abd El-Aziz El-nmr.

Professor of Sports Training Department

Helwan University

 

DR. Ahmed Kesra Maane

Assistant Prof. of Curriculum and Teaching methods division

Helwan University

Research Summary

 Introduction and the problem of the research

 

The muscles works in pairs , so while a muscle or prime mover muscles contracts then the antagonistic muscle or prime mover muscles which are on the same jonit relaxes not to prevent the movement , and when the moving limb reaches the final limit of the joint’s range of motion , the muscle or prime mover muscles contracts a momentary contraction which correlates with the contraction strength for the prime mover muscles and the speed of the moving limb , also the balanced devlopment at both of the joint sides between the prime mover muscles and the antagonistic       muscles is the main pathe for preventing inguries.                                     

Generally in the team games and specially volley ball , the prime mover   muscles in the jumping skill are Quadriceps muscles , gluteals muscles and gastrocnemius muscle , and after a few months of specific training the muscles becomes more strengthen than the antagonistic muscles which are Scapus muscles , Hamstrings muscles and also the Back muscles . Because of this imbalance between these muscle groups , the player is exposed to a great deal of danger of injuries in the knee joint and soft tissues , such as the injuries of calcaneal tendon , hamstrings muscles tightness and the increased tightness in quadriceps muscles , in addition to the discomfort in low bach muscles , there for it is obvious that concentrating on the specific training is partly held responsible for the many  injuries of the amboceptor muscle and tissues . so , the beast way to prevent these injuries is through out developing a great deal of strength                            in all prime mover muscles at both sides of body joins

So when all the muscles are strengthened, then the probabilities of exposing the player to injuries, which resulted from the imbalance developing of of the muscles , are limited .                                                

The researcher found big difference between the strength of the agonistic muscles and the antagonistic muscles which results in injuries for many players. so this difference led the researcher to conduct a program for             improving the muscles imbalance in volley ball  .                                   

 

Aims of study:

1-Designing a training program for starching and strengthening

2-Knowing the effect of starching and strengthening program on muscle Balance.

knowing improving ratios of straching , strengthing and movin ability  -3        

 

Hypothesis:

 1-Muscle balance program improving muscular imbalance on strengthening knee joint muscles 

 2- Muscle balance program improving muscular imbalance on starching knee          joint muscles 

 

The research method:

The research has used the experimental method by designing one group with pre and post measuring and other subsequent measures .

 

 The research sample:

The research sample was selected with the purposive method from volley ball players in Zamalek club under 15 years who are registered from this season 1998-1999. The sample of the research consisted of 27 players.

 The procedures:

•             The physical level of the group wear measured at the end of the preparation pervades of the previous season 1998-1999.

•             Applying the pre – test.

•             Conducting monthly measures to evaluate the program .

•             Appalling the post – test, after the program.

•             Collecting data.

 

Conclusions :

•             Muscular balance between  Anterior and posterior muscles :

1-strangth ratio on knee flexion was 21:100 become now 30:100 .

2-strangth ratio on right knee flexion was 18:100 become now21: 100.

3-strangth ratio on left knee flexion to right knee extention was16:100  become now 21:100 .

 

 

 

 

•             Muscular balance on lateral body:

1-strangth ratio on right knee extention to left knee extention was 97: 100 become now100: 100.

2-strangth ratio on left knee flexion  to right knee was 90:100 become now 100: 100.

3-strangth ratio on right knee adduction to left knee adduction was 99: 100 become now100: 100.

 

4-strangth ratio on right knee abduction to left knee abduction was99: 100 become now100: 100.

 

 

•             Stretching balance between  Anterior and posterior muscles :

1-rang of motion ratio on knee flexion muscles to knee extention muscles was 53: 100 become now 67: 100.

2-rang of motion ratio on left knee flexion muscles to right knee extention muscles 35: 100 become now 66: 100.

 

•             Stretching balance on lateral body:

1-rang of motion ratio on right knee extention muscles to left knee extention muscles 99: 100 become now 100: 100.

2-rang of motion ratio on right knee flexion muscles to left knee flexion muscles 99: 100 become now 100: 100.

 

•             Strength development ratio between Anterior and posterior muscles:

1-Strength development ratio on knee extention muscles 57.47% less than knee flexion muscles 96.01%

2-Strength development ratio on left knee flexion muscles 105.5% more than knee extention muscles 68.28%

 

•             Strength development ratio on lateral body:

1-Strength development ratio on right knee extention muscles 69.76% more than right knee extention muscles 68.28%

 

 

•             development ratio on rang of motion for Anterior and posterior muscles :

1- development ratio on rang of motion for right knee extension muscles 62.34% to left knee more than right knee flexion muscles 14.19%

2- The rang of Strength development ratio between  knee extension and knee flexion is 57.47% to 109%

3- NO injuries on the research sample in this season

 Recommendations:

 

1.            Equal deavlopmeant for knee agonistic and antagonistic muscles

2.            Improving Strength development ratio on knee flexion muscles to become 100%: 100% with knee extension muscles.

3.            Using the suggested training program of strength and flexibility to improve the muscular imbalance of the moving muscles in knee joint.

4.            Putting on training muscular balance program within physical preparation program.

5.            General season program must be included muscular imbalance program.

6.            Paying attention to improve the muscular balance in the braves sport activates.

7.            Helding symposiums on designing programs for improving the muscular imbalance of the moving muscle in different joints.

 

8.            Using Isokinatic weight training machine for testing and training

9.            Using similar muscular imbalance program for different muscles group.

10.         Repeating the same research but by applying it another samples differing in age , sex ( gender ) , number and activity.

 

11.         Studying the effect muscular balance program on technical performance.

12.         Reprocedurcs this dissertation for the same muscles and another sample.

 

 

 

   

Using High and low resistant training and over speed training on Acceleration and record level for 100 meter sprinters

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 Using High and low resistant training and over speed training on Acceleration and record level for 100 meter sprinters

Dr.Atef Rashad Khalil, Dr.Mohamed Gaber Abdelhamid


Over speed training one of the popular sprinters exercises, the research problem is the training stereotyped and this cause decline in their performance.

On the last few years we found different methodology to train over speed players like mechanical facilities (sprint on decline road, pull by Pulley, pull by rubber band). But these methods haven't the trust until now and the trainers don't know the deference between every one of them and which the best for their players. For this purpose the researchers did this research to know
The Effect of over speed training on some Kinematics variables and record level for 100 meter sprinters.

The researchers used experimental method by using pre and post test.
They select premeditated sample for from Army team players, whose training with the over speed program for eight weeks.
The result show improves for the second test for the three groups on all research variables and record level for 100 meter sprinters. Also the results shown that the best group in the research the players who's trained with pull by pulley.

 

Comparing two methods of maintaining specific physical fitness abilities level during the volleyball junior's competitive season

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        Dr. Atef Khalil Rashad *
- Author Affiliations
University of Helwan, Egypt 
ABSTRACT
This study compares between two methods to maintain the physical abilities level during the volleyball junior competitive season, one only uses muscular power program, where the other uses the same program in addition to speed, agility and cardiovascular endurance program. Twenty-four juniors under 17 years old divided into two experimental groups, the first group used the comprehensive program and the second group only used the muscular power program. The research included pre-measurement at the end of the specific preparation period and post- measurement at the end of competitions. The two methods applied for 19 competitive weeks. The results illustrated that both methods led to maintaining the specific physical fitness level of the volleyball juniors during the competitions period. Moreover, the first group surpassed the second one in the entire physical fitness-changing rate. 

Key word: competitive season,  Maintains Programs,  physical fitness abilities,  volleyball. 
Introduction and problem of the research:
The physical training main aim during competitions is to reduce the rate of the physical abilities level loss, maintain what has achieved in the preparation period and to best benefit during the competitions period. (1, 2, 11)
Volleyball matches depends on the importance of providing high level of the specific physical abilities of the volleyball player such as muscular power, agility, motor speed and performance endurance and employing these abilities to serve tactical and skills performance as efficiently as possible.
The muscular power has its importance in the jumping, throwing, preparing, attacking, blocking and defense skills. Moreover, through developing speed and agility can improve the speed and accuracy of the game with all of its forms during the competitions. (8.14)
According to its utmost importance influence on the different technical aspects, the physical fitness maintenance program as a preventive procedure during the competition period reduces the physical abilities losing rate level and maintaining them for as long as possible, other wise disturbance and disorder may occur in the biological state of the muscular cells and different body organs and members.
In addition, the testosterone hormone level and beta-endorphin reduced -that hormone-like compound- that works with the nervous system to improve the mood and sense of recovery, thus the player's physical and technical level reduces for the duration of the competition. (8, 18, 10)
The researcher noted the high physical condition at the beginning of the competitions period, while the situation changes in the middle and near the end of the competitions period, where the physical level reduces followed by the technical level, followed by the high incidence of injury. In addition to the instability of junior's level from match to another, where the player acts in good form in one match then appears at a lower level in another, that explains the lack of sufficient attention in maintaining the junior's physical condition, leading to not benefiting from the reached level during the preparation period.
The researcher also noted the uncertainty vision of many coaches in determining the priority of any of the general and specific physical abilities trained during the season, which therefore prompted the researcher to conduct this study.  The study aimed to compare two different methods for maintaining the volleyball junior's physical abilities during the competitive season, through designing two suggested training programs, as the first is only for the muscular power and the second combines each of the muscular power, speed, agility and cardiovascular endurance.
Procedures of the research:
Method of the research: 
The researcher used the experimental design with two experimental measurements of pre- and post-measurements.  
Sample of the research:
The sample included 24 volleyball players under 17 years old of the participants in the Egyptian volleyball league, intentionally selected and divided to two experimental groups. Both groups average ranged between 16.33-16.5 years in the age variable, and between 184.3-185.2 cm in the height variable, and between 80.58-81.08 kg in the weight variable, and between 6.25-6.92 years in the training age variable.
Measurement tools:
Weights equipment of Technogym brand - medical scale - restameter to measure total body length - electronic stopwatch - chalk – colors
Measurements of the research:
The research included pre- and post-measurements. The pre-measurement of the sample of the research was the final measure for the specific preparation period for both groups, which is the final limit reached by the players at the top of their training level, while the post-measurement was at the end of the competition period.
The research measurements included muscular power, maximum power, speed, agility and cardiovascular endurance variables. The muscular power measured using weights through measuring the maximum weight rose for three repetitions maximum (3RM) of half-squat exercise and power snatch, as well as measuring the legs muscular power by measuring the vertical jump distance from stability. The maximum power measured using weights through measuring the maximum weight rose for one repetition maximum (1RM) on the weights devices of leg press and chest press, where both measurements considered as an indicator of maximum power for each of the body upper and lower limbs. Moreover, transition speed of running 20 meters measured in addition to measuring agility by the Barrow test and the cardiovascular endurance measured by the Cooper test. (5.6, 8, 4, 15)

Planning the training program during the competitions period:
The main objective of the training program in the competitions period is to maintain the level of physical abilities previously acquired during the period of preparation, while the variables of the training program of the physical abilities during the competitions period characterized by decreasing the total volume of training with the increased level of intensity.
Recovery continues for several days, as recovery time is relatively short after speed training, while being longer after endurance training. Muscular power, speed and agility could maintain 48 hours before the match to allow improving the specific work of the central nervous system, where the nervous cells ability to work are raised days before the matches and achieves its highest levels in the competitions days then afterwards decline to normal and in some cases to less than the normal level. The training intensity of 90-95% considered the most appropriate training intensity during the competitions period to maintain the different physical abilities. (5, 6, 7, 12)
The maximum limit of the physical abilities at the end of the preparation period is the only indicator for the implementation of the maintenance program during the competitions period. The preparation period took twelve weeks, while the competitive season took continuously 19 weeks at a rate of one match on Monday of each week. Concerning the first group, the maintenance program included 95 training units, where muscular power trained for 38 training units, and the same for speed and agility, while the aerobic endurance trained for 19 training units during the competitions period. The training week consisted of aerobic endurance training on Tuesday, training muscular power on Wednesday and Friday, and speed and agility training on Saturday and Thursday of each week. 
The program implemented with the assistance of the teams coaches under the supervision and implementation of the researcher.
When designing the physical ability-maintaining program, the researcher took into account that the program should characterize with effectiveness and privacy. (13, 5, 6, 17, 3)
The first experimental group implemented the training program for each of the muscular power, speed, agility and cardiovascular endurance, while the second experimental group only implemented the muscular power, where each of weights exercises and plyometrics exercises had used.
The researcher took into account that the suggested muscular power-training program with all of its variables fully unified between each of the two experimental groups. The muscular power-training program for both groups by using weights exercises included the basic exercises, which in turn included Power Snatch, Squat, Leg Press, Bench Press, and Lat Pull down. Moreover, the muscular power-training program for both groups using weights exercise included assistant exercises, which in turn included seated rowing and abdominals exercises. 
The researcher also took into account that the program's exercises included exercises to prevent injuries of the rotator cuff muscles (Plyometrics Exercises); in addition, the muscular power program used the same exercises for both experimental groups. The basic and assistant exercises was performed in (3) sets, each set of (3) repetitions with an intensity ranging between 90-95% of the maximum weight that can be lifted once. (5.6, 14, 16.18)
The first group has implemented speed, agility and cardiovascular endurance program, in addition to the unified muscular power program. The speed program included short distance exercises represented in running 20, 30 and 50 meters with an intensity of 90-95% of the best time achieved by the player for three (3) repetitions for each distance. Moreover, the first group implemented the suggested agility program that included exercises of changing directions and the rebound running with an intensity of 90-95% of the best time achieved by the player, for three (3) repetitions for each exercise. The first group trained for just one day per week on the cardiovascular endurance by running for the longest distance in a time of 12 minutes for one time while the heart rate ranges between 150-170 beats per minute. (8, 14, 16)



Presenting the Results:
TABLE 1
Differences indication and the changing rate between pre- and post- measurements of the first group in the physical variables
Variables Pre-measurement Pre-measurement T changing rate %
Mean Deviation Mean Deviation
vertical jump 42.83
7.15 45 3.95 1.35 9
running 20 m. 3.26 0.13 3.21 0.13 2.67 1.7
Barrow test 20.51 1.08 19.76 0.85 5.97 2.7
Cooper test 2.82 0.28 2.97 0.29 3.18 1.9
half-squat 54.75 6.44 57.91 3.34 2.56 5.8
power snatch 40 5.22 42.08 2.57 2.15 5.2
leg press 114.58 13.04 120.83 8.21 3.19 5.4
chest press 41.66 8.61 45.41 6.20 3.44 9
The indexed "T" value at the freedom degree of 22 and significant level of 0.05= 2.074 
Table (1) illustrates that there are statistical significant indications of the physical variables between the pre and post- measurements of the first group in favor of the post-measurements, except for the vertical jump of stability test. Moreover, the changing rates of the research variables in the first group ranged between 1.7% for the 20 meters running test and 9% for both vertical jump of stability and chest press tests.

Table (2)
Differences indication and the changing rate between pre- and post- measurements of the second group in the physical variables
Variables Pre-measurement Pre-measurement T changing rate %
Mean Deviation Mean Deviation
vertical jump 41.5 4.14 42.3 3.77 1.6 2.01
running 20 m. 3.27 0.13 3.2 0.15 2.08 0.61
Barrow test 20.53 1.1 20.49 1.08 2.15 0.14
Cooper test 2.9 0.2 2.9 0.2 1 0.29
half-squat 54.9 5.19 55.5 3.5 0.9 1.06
power snatch 39.9 4.5 40.3 3.68 1 1.04
leg press 113.3 11.5 114.16 10.6 1.48 0.07
chest press 41.25 8 42.08 6.89 1.48 2.02
The indexed "T" value at the freedom degree of 22 and significant level of 0.05= 2.074
Table (2) illustrates that there are no statistical significant indications between the pre and post- measurements of the second group in the physical variables, except for both the running 20 meters and Barrow agility tests. Moreover, the changing rates of the research variables in the second group ranged between 0.07% for the leg press test and 2.02% for the chest press test.

Table (3)
Differences indication between both the post-measurements of the two groups 
Variables First experimental group Second experimental group T
Mean Deviation Mean Deviation
vertical jump 41.5 4.14 42.3 3.77 1.6
running 20 meters 3.27 0.13 3.2 0.15 2.08
Barrow test 20.5 1.1 20.49 1.08 2.15
Cooper test 2.9 0.2 2.9 0.25 1
half-squat 54.9 5.19 55.5 3.5 0.9
power snatch 39.9 4.52 40.3 3.68 1
leg press 113.3 11.55 114.1 10.6 1.48
chest press 41.25 8.01 42.08 6.89 1.48
The indexed "T" value at the freedom degree of 22 and significant level of 0.05= 2.074 
Table (3) illustrates that there are no statistical significant indications between both the post-measurements of the two groups in the physical variables, except for the vertical jump from stability test. 

Discussion of the results:
The results of tables (1 & 2) illustrated the existence of a changing rate in the physical abilities of the first and second groups in favor of the pre-measurements, which indicates that there is no decrease in the physical abilities level during the competitions period. Thus, both training programs of the first and second groups have led to maintaining the specific physical abilities of the volleyball juniors during the competitions period.
The researcher returns this tiny change of the specific physical abilities level of the volleyball juniors, which emerged from the statistical analysis is only a natural result of the load intensity during the many matches performed in the competitions period. 
Volleyball requires high performance of the specific physical abilities level represented in the high jump to the maximum distance, changing directions, reaction speed and endurance during smashing, blocking, serving, preparing and defending, that indicates the occurrence of significant growth in the specific physical abilities level. Moreover, repeating the performance of the offensive and defensive skills during the competitions may lead to such simple growth in the rates of change between pre- and post-measurements in favor of the post-measurements, which indicate that both proposed maintaining programs have led to maintaining the specific physical abilities level during the competitions period. These results are consistent with the views of many scientists that maintaining the level achieved during the preparation period, as well as promoting it are the main training goal for training the specific physical abilities during the competitions period. (14, 16, 18)
Table (3) illustrates that there are no statistical significances between both pre-measurements of the two experimental groups in the physical variables, but the vertical jump from stability. The researcher returns this result to the positive impact of training speed, agility and cardiovascular endurance to improve muscular power in general and vertical jump in particular, where the vertical jump is of the most technical skills related to the offensive and defensive volleyball technical skills.
According to many scientists, the physical abilities have a dual effect on each other as speed and agility affected by not training the muscular strength, where speed tends to be the first physical ability affected by stopping training as breaking down proteins and the degeneration of the motor units lead to the lack of muscular contraction ability. The nervous system affected by stopping training than strength training, which would negatively influence the speed, because of the motor unit itself is the first thing affected by periods of stopping training, thus the lack of nerve impulses in the muscle fibers leads to its contraction and relaxation in a very rapid rate. The strength and frequency of pulses can influence by the decrease in the total number of the new recruited motor units during the consecutive contractions. 
Because of the obvious lack in movement, which training aimed to, the lack of power becomes more obvious and the body ceases to function in the recruitment of a number of new motor units, which in turn lead to the lack of muscular strength, which must produced. That decline in the number of motor units leads to the lack of the total strength outcome required in performance to implement each of the technical skills in a right manner, in addition to the negative impact on speed performance, as the muscle tension depends on strength, provoke speed and explosive speed rate. (8, 1, 12, 17, 18)
The researcher also suggests that this result gives an important indicator of the success of both training programs to maintain the physical abilities level of the volleyball juniors during the competitions period and differences between them were not very significant. This gives freedom for the coaches in using one of the two methods according to its commensurate with the training time, circumstances and the available facilities to each team than the other.
Conclusions:
The researcher concluded that each of the two training programs have led to maintaining the specific physical abilities level of the volleyball juniors during the competitions period, moreover the training program of the first group surpassed the training program of the second group in all the specific physical abilities of the volleyball juniors during the competitions period. The highest growth rate was in favor of the first group in both tests of the vertical jump from stability and chest press by 9%, while the second group had the lowest growth rate in the squat test by 0.07%.
The researcher also concluded that there were no gross significant differences between both training methods in maintaining the physical abilities during the season of competitions; in addition to using one of the two training methods gives coaches the freedom to select what ever commensurate with the training time, circumstances and available facilities to each team than the other.
Recommendations:
In the limits of the procedures and the results reached by the researcher, the researcher recommends using the first suggested training program to maintain the specific physical abilities level during the competitions period of the volleyball juniors.  
Moreover, recommends using one of the suggested programs to maintain the physical abilities level during the period of competitions according to what ever commensurate with the training time, circumstances and available facilities to each team as an integral systematic and standardized part of the physical preparation program and the annual general training program for the volleyball players. As well as conducting similar researches on different technical levels and different age stages, sexuality and activities.
References
1- Astorino, T. A., Tam, P. A., Rietschel, J. C., Johnson, S. M., & Freedman, T. P. (2004).Changes in physical fitness parameters during a competitive field hockey season. J Strength Cond Research., 18(4): U.S.A. ,p: 850-854.
2- Aziz, A.R., Newton, M.J., Tan, H.Y., & Teh, K.C. (2006). Variation in fitness attributes of players during a competitive season in an Asian professional soccer league. Asian Journal of Exercise and Sports Science, 3, U.S.A. ,p: 40-45.
3- Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Castagna, Carlo(2010). Positional Role and Competitive-Level Differences in Elite-Level Men's Basketball Players Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. USA. ,p: 24(5):1346-1355
4- Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; ( 2010)Activity Profile and Physiological Requirements of Junior Elite Basketball Players in Relation to Aerobic-Anaerobic Fitness Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. USA.  ,p: 24(9):2330-2342
5- Bill Foran, 2001, High – Performance sports conditioning Human kinetics Publishers, Inc U.S.A. p: 139-193,262,322  
6- Bompa, Tuoloro.1999, periodization training for sports Human kinetic, U.S.A. p:83-120,203-214
7- Chaouachi, Anis; Brughelli, Matt; Castagna, Carlo(2009) Lower Limb Maximal Dynamic Strength and Agility Determinants in Elite Basketball Players Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 23(5):1570-1577,. , USA. 
8- Christen M. Drews. 2000: Physiology of sports and exercise. Human Kinetics. U.S.A. 34-79
9- Dale W; Newton, Michael J; McGuigan, Michael R Efficacy of Interval-Based Training on Conditioning of Amateur Field Hockey Players Chapman, (2009) Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 23(3):712-717,.USA.
10- Goran; Jukic, Igor; Ostojic, Sergej M; Milanovic, Dragan Fitness Profiling in Soccer: (2009) Physical and Physiologic Characteristics of Elite Players Sporis, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. USA. ,p: 23(7):1947-1953
11- Hakkinen, K, 1993: Changes in physical fitness profile in female basketball players during the competetitive season including explosive type strength training, journal of sports medicine and physical fitness ,torino.Mar,. p:  267-275
12- Lee E, Brown, Vance Ferrigno, Juan Carlos Santana.2000:Training for Speed, Agility,and Quickness Human kinetic, U.S.A. p: 5-10,220-224
13- Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Bramanti, Jacopo; Jubeau, Marc; Bizzini, Mario; Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Gilles ( 2009) Feasibility and Efficacy of Progressive Electrostimulation Strength Training for Competitive Tennis Players Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. USA. p: 23(2):677-682
14- Marques, Mário C; Tillaar, Roland van den; Vescovi, Jason D; González-Badillo, Juan José; , ( 2008) Changes in Strength and Power Performance in Elite Senior Female Professional Volleyball Players During the In-Season: A Case Study Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. USA. p: 22(4):1147-1155
15- Matthew Westona, Carlo Castagnab, Franco M. Impellizzeric, Ermanno Rampininic, Grant Abtd; (2007) Analysis of physical match performance in English Premier League soccer referees with particular reference to first half and player work rates U.S.A., Volume 10, Issue 6, p: 390-397 
16- Marques, Mário C; Tillaar, Roland van den; Gabbett, Tim J; Reis, Victor M; González-Badillo,( 2009) Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Volleyball Players: Determination of Positional Differences  Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 23(4):1106-1111,USA.
17- Magal, Meir; Smith, Ron T; Dyer, Jon J; Hoffman, Jay R (2009). Seasonal Variation in Physical Performance-Related Variables in Male NCAA Division III Soccer Players Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 23(9):2555-2559, USA.
18- Mário C; Tillaar, Roland van den; Vescovi, Jason D; González-Badillo, Juan José ( 2008) Changes in Strength and Power Performance in Elite Senior Female Professional Volleyball Players During the In-Season: A Case Study arques, Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 22(4):1147-1155,. USA.




   
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